The theatrical or musical occupation was considered
the lowest class in the society. Opera performance used to be a male dominated
profession. Mixed performance was prohibited. All the roles were played
by male. Most of the actors entered the Training School as apprentices
in their childhood because their parents could not feed them. They had
to absolutely obey the commands of the school master and teachers. Any
of the failure or even success would result in some heavy slashes or other
physical punishment. Far earlier than the dawn, they had to get up to practice
their voice and performance skills and do their mandatory works. Director
CHEN Kai-Ge's film Farewell my Concubine gives a picture of the
situation. Female were rare and usually took this profession because of
their family background. But this also gives an account on how hard they
should practice their skill in order to be a successful player. It is said
that a flash in the stage is a reflection of ten years unremitting hard
- MEI Lan-Fang (1894 - 1961)
- The best known Beijing Opera master ever. A
superlative singer, actor and dancer of Beijing Opera female role Qing
Yi and a towering figure in the Chinese theater.
Mei Lan-Fang was born October 22, 1894 in Tai Zhao of China's Jiangsu
province. His grandfather and father were all famous opera actors. Mei
began studying Beijing Opera at eight and played his debut role at 12.
His performance in "Shattering Flowers" won him a special fame.
He joined Xi-Lian-Cheng Theatrical Company at 14 and performed in Shanghai
and elsewhere thereafter. He acquired a national reputation and was regared
as the leader of the Pear Garden (A name refers the opera community circle).
Western world began to know Beijing Opera through his performances. He
toured Japan twice (1919 and 1924), the United States once (1930), and
the Soviet Union twice in 1932 and 1935.
After the outbreak of Resistance War against Japanese in 1937 he settled
in Hong Kong. He then returned to Shanghai but stopped his performance
for five years. He then maintained his beard and mustache, and refused
to perform for the occuping Japanese army. He resumed his stage career
after the end of the war in 1946. Thereafter he did both stage and film
work. There is a film Mei Lan-Fang's Stage Arts featuring his stage
performances including several play sections. His last masterpiece "Recommanding
the Army" was shot into a colored film. He served as director or member
of several cultural organizations.
Lan-Fang rediscovered many long-neglected theatrical masterpieces and brought
them back on stage with his enforcements. He was credited with having revived
the traditional Chinese arts of dancing and pantomime. He also enriched
the stage performance by learning from Chinese Kungfu, like the swordplay
in his Farewell My concubine. He put special attention on the ladyship
of his performance. He was said that once he even pretended to assault
his wife to observe her frightened reaction and then apologize to her
Because he did not satisfy with one of his actions in a play.
Mei Lan-Fang died on August 7, 1961 in Beijing. His masterpiece plays
include "Farewell My Concubine", "The
Drunken Concubine (or Drunken Beauty)",
"Recommanding the Army", "Scattering
Flowers", and "Eternal Regret" etc. A bunch of female role
actors and actresses follow his style, among which his son, MEI Bao-Jiu,
is a superb.
(Photos: MEI Lan-Fang as Zhao Gao's daughter in Beauty Deflies
- TAN Xin-Pei (1847 - 1917)
- A male role Lao Sheng player and the founder of TAN Style.
He had a sounding reputation. It is said the all Lao Sheng players
at his time were following his styles. The imitation of his arias could
be heard across the street everywhere. He was a best known, superb to any
other names like warlord or famous political figures. His famous plays
includes " A Fisher's Rebelling", etc. His descendants follow
his style, including his son, TAN Xiao-Pei, grandson, TAN Fu-Ying, great
grandson, TAN Yuan-Shou, and great great grandson. The most successful
was Tan Fu-Ying.
- MA Lian-Liang (1901 - 1966)
male role Lao Sheng player and the founder of the MA Style.
He was a graduate of the famous Beijing Opera training school Xi Lian
Cheng. He apprenticed JIA Hong-Ling, and then followed YU Shu-Yan.
Later he formed his own style with characters of sweet, fluent and natural,
which is best known as MA style. His preserved plays include "
of Zhao Family", "Borrowing Eastern Wind", "Gan-Lu
Temple", "Meeting of the Heroes", etc.
(Photo: MA Lian-Liang as Cheng Yin in Orphan
of Zhao Family).
- ZHOU Xin-Fang (1895 - 1975)
Lao Sheng player and the founder of the QI Style. (His stage
name is Unicorn Boy Qi Ling Tong, which also homonymly means
Staged first at seven, he was the flag of Beijing Opera in south China
while MA Lian-Liang the north. He was not with the perfect conditions for
a Beijing Opera player. But he was excellent in using his strongness and
developed a characterized style of his own. He enriched the performance
by learning skills from other operas. His preserved plays include "
Four Scholars" , " Hurry to the City Wall", " Chasing
- YAN Ju-Peng (1890 - 1942)
- A Lao Sheng player and the founder of YAN Style. He had been
a famous Beijing Opera amateur before he formally became an opera actor.
He followed TAN Xin-Pei and developed his own singing style which enphasizes
the tones and his arias are mild and sweet. His preserved plays include
"Moarning Zhou Yu", "Giving XuZhou", etc. His son,
YAN Shao-Peng, daughter-in-law and grandson, YAN Xing-Peng, are all his
style followers. Xing-Peng got the first place for Lao Sheng in
a national Beijing Opera performing competition a few years ago.
- SHANG Xiao-Yun (1899 - 1976)
- A female role Qing Yi player. Born in Nan-Gong of Hebei Province,
He entered the "Triple Happiness Opera School" and was
trained first to be a
"Wu Sheng" and later "Qing Yi". He had a very good
skill of acrobat and dance. His performing style was highly regarded and
famed as SHANG Style. His famous plays include "Mad after Lost Her
Son", "Liang Hongyu" etc. Shang was also dedicated in
training new players. He founded the "Rong Chun Opera School".
- CHEN Yan-Qiu (1904 - 1958)
- A Qing Yi player. Born in 1904 and died in 1958. His playing
style was recognized as CHEN Style. His voice became narrow and muffled
when he was in his teen. So his success attributed to his talent and
consistent efforts. Most of his plays were about tragedies and the roles
he took were sorrowsome. His famous plays include "
Purse", "Tear on Depress" etc. He toured Europe in 1932.
The countries he visited include France, United Kingdom, Germany, Belgium
- XUN Hui-Sheng (1899 - 1968)
- A Qing Yi and Hua Dan player and his performing style
was entitled XUN Style. He, along with MEI, SHANG and CHEN, is regarded
as one of the Four Great Female Role Players.
Born in Dong-Guang of Hebei Province, he entered "Triple Happiness
Opera School" to learn Hebei Opera. He then switched to playing
Beijing Opera after his graduation. He was good playing lively and
naughty girls and heroines.
- ZHANG Jun-Qiu
female role Qing Yi performer. His style is recognized as ZHANG
Style. His plays include " River-Facing Paguda", "Meeting by
poem" etc. He was regarded the number one
of the Four Junior Great Female Role Players.
(Photo: ZHANG Jun-Qiu as CHE Jing-Fang in Meeting by Poem)
- QIU Sheng-Rong (1915 - 1971)
- A great Jing player and the founder of QIU Style.
His father was a famous Jing player who
had a major influence on his opera career.He entered the famous opera school
of "Fu Lian Cheng". He leared from a variety of players including
Lao Sheng players and applied into his performance and introduced
many reforms into Jing arias and actings. He created a situation
that all Jing players follow his style.
His students include FANG Rong-Xiang. His famous plays include "
Execution of CHEN Shi-Mei", "Town of Chi-Sang", "Stealing
the Royal Horse" etc.
First edition: November 11, 1995
Last revision: April 2, 1997
Copyright 1995-1997 by Xu-Ming Wang
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